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48 Articles

Modulation of Ice Ages via Precession and Dust-Albedo Feedbacks

The slow wobble, or precession, of the axis of the Earth causes the "Great Year" because it gives warm and cool seasons over its approximate 23,000-year cycle. The advancing ice sheets during a "Great Winter" increases the Earth's albedo, reflecting sunlight and resisting the warming effect of the next "Great Summer". As the ice sheets grow and the seas cool, CO2 also reduces as it is absorbed by the oceans. Most plants suffer severe stress at 190 ppm CO2 and die at 150 ppm, because CO2 is a primary plant-food. The concentration finally reaches the critical 190 ppm level where world flora begins to die and the Gobi steppe-lands turn into a true sand desert. The ensuing dust storms dump thousands of tonnes of dust onto the northern ice sheets each year. The interglacial periods occur only every fourth or fifth Great Year. Ice core data shows that every interglacial warming period is preceded by about 10,000 years of intense dust storms. When the next Great Summer comes along, the dusty polar ice sheets can warm and melt and the next interglacial is born. Low concentrations of CO2 near the end of an ice age causes a die-off of plants leading to dust storms, reducing the ice sheet albedo, resulting in warming and the interglacial periods.



Letter to the Prime Minister of Canada: COP21 Paris 2015

The Friends of Science Society sent a letter to the PM of Canada, the Minister of Environment and Climate Change, and the Premiers of the Provinces. The letter begins, "As the World’s Nations scramble to make their commitments to reduce Carbon Dioxide (CO2) in the atmosphere to keep the temperature increase below 2 °C, the COP21 representatives apparently have failed to notice that there has been no warming for almost 2 decades." If further states "it is apparent that there is no match between climate models and observed reality. ... The temperature rise from 1911 to 1944 occurred before CO2 could have had a significant effect on temperature but it is very similar to the rise from 1976 to1998, and both increases are coincident with significant increases in solar activity ... Well documented climatic information for the Roman Warm Period and the Medieval Warm period show that they were both significantly warmer than our current warm period and there is nothing unique or unprecedented about modern warming."



Views on the Influence of CO2 on Climate

Dr. Thoenes of the Eindhoven University of Technology, The Netherlands, presents his views on the influence of CO2 on global climate change for the Friends of Science Society. His commentary concludes that "it is impossible that a significant climate change can take place due to rising CO2-emissions. This means then that all measures to reduce CO2-emissions are useless. This would have enormous financial consequences for society."



Better to Have Global Warming than Global Cooling

Dr. Patrick Moore is a co-founder of Greenpeace. He says "there is no conclusive proof that human emissions of carbon dioxide are the dominant cause of the minor warming of the Earth’s atmosphere over the past 100 years." Looking at the geological record, he writes, "Then an ice age occurred 450 million years ago when CO2 was still about 10 times higher than today." He notes that we are a "tropical species" and that warming would be far better than cooling.



Climate Science Is Not Settled

We are very far from the knowledge needed to make good climate policy, writes leading scientist Steven E. Koonin. The idea that "Climate science is settled" runs through today's popular and policy discussions. Unfortunately, that claim is misguided. It has not only distorted our public and policy debates on issues related to energy, greenhouse-gas emissions and the environment. But it also has inhibited the scientific and policy discussions that we need to have about our climate future.




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