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Providing Insight
Into Climate Change
The Greenhouse Effect
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19 Articles
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Estimating Climate Sensitivity Using Two-zone Energy Balance Models

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Empirical estimates of equilibrium climate sensitivity (ECS) can be obtained by comparing measurements of short-term radiation changes at the top of the atmosphere during the satellite era to corresponding changes in surface temperatures. Dr. Ray Bates from University College Dublin estimates ECS using a two zone energy balance model, where the radiative responses in the tropics (30 N to 30 S) and extratropics are estimated separately, and the dynamic heat transport from the tropics to the extratropics are explicitly estimated. Using likely ranges of the parameters from observations, he finds that the ECS is tightly constrained with a best estimate of 1.02 °C and a likely range of 0.85 °C to 1.28 °C.



CLOUD Experiment Reduces Climate Sensitivity to CO2

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The CLOUD experiments at the nuclear facility CERN showed that the ionization of the atmosphere by cosmic rays account for nearly one-third of all particles formed. The experiments also shows the aerosol particle formed from biogenic nucleation from naturally produce organic vapour “was the dominant source of particles in the pristine pre-industrial atmosphere”, and that the amount of aerosol was much higher than previously assumed. That means that pre-industrial atmosphere was cloudier than previously assumed, as the aerosols seed cloud formation, and that greenhouse gases caused a much smaller portion of the warming since pre-industrial times. The climate sensitivity in climate models must be reduced for them to match past aerosol amounts and the temperature record.



15 Years of CERES Versus Surface Temperature: Climate Sensitivity = 1.3 deg. C

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Dr. Roy Spencer analysis 15 years of CERES satellite net top-of-atmosphere radiative measurements verses HadCRUT4.3 surface temperature, utilizing annual data with a four month time lag to maximize the correlations. Spencer writes, "Time-varying radiative forcing in the climate system (e.g. due to increasing CO2, volcanic eruptions, and natural cloud variations) corrupt the determination of radiative feedback. ... diagnosing feedback by comparing observed radiative flux variations to observed surface temperature variations is error-prone…and usually in the direction of high climate sensitivity." Using annual data reduces the noise caused by El Nino and La Nina. The results of the analysis shows a climate sensitivity of 1.3 deg. C. This analysis still includes non-forcing radiative noise, so the actual climate sensitivity is likely less than 1.3 deg. C for double CO2.



Taking Greenhouse Warming Seriously

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Dr. Richard Lindzen of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology explains how the greenhouse effect works in this paper published in 2007. Lindzen explains that the incoming energy to the earth from the sun is nearly balanced by the outgoing longwave radiation. He shows that increases in greenhouse gas concentrations causes the "characteristic emission level", which is about 7 to 8 km altitude in the tropics, to rise to a higher altitude where it is cooler. Emission from the cooler level is less, so the temperature rises a little to re-establish the radiative balanced. He also shows that the climate models predict that the warming above the tropics should be 2 to 3 times more than the warming at the surface, but the observations do not show this enhanced warming trend, implying that the positive feedbacks in the models are wrong. He concludes,"Using basic theory, modeling results and observations, we can reasonably bound the anthropogenic contributions to surface warming since 1979 to a third of the observed warming".



The Skeptic's Handbook

This page gives links to Joanne Nova's Skepitc's Handbook and Global Bullies Want Your Money. The Skeptic's Handbook says skeptics should stick to four point that matter: 1. The greenhouse signature is missing. 2. CO2 lags temperature change in ice cores by 800 years. 3. Temperatures have not increased since 2001. 4. Carbon dioxide is already absorbing almost all it can.



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