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Providing Insight
Into Climate Change
FoS Climate Science Newsletter - 2017

By: Ken Gregory


CliSci # 265      2017-08-13


Health Effects of Global Warming

This article reviews three papers on the health effects of warming. A study published in 2015 examined 74 million deaths worldwide from 1985 to 2012 and found that the ratio of cold-related to heat-related deaths was a whopping 17 to 1. A study of heat-related deaths in the USA shows that as heat waves become more frequent, heat-related deaths decrease because of adaptation. There were 41 heat-related deaths/year/million population is the 1960s and 1970s dropping to 17 in the 1980s and to only 10 in the 1990s. A 2017 study of temperature-related hospital emergency visits in China over the period 2011–2014 shows that the risk is far greater for cold temperatures than for hot temperatures. When temperatures fall the risk of an emergency visit increased by 80% but when temperature rise the risk increases by only 15%. The length of hospital stays due to cold temperatures are ten times greater than that due to hot temperatures. See here.


Paleoclimate Cycles are Key Analogs for Present Day Warm Period

An article by Renee Hannon presents an excellent analysis of the climatic cycles over the last 450 million years using the Antarctica Dome C ice core data. The climate cycles are compared to the Milankovitch cycles which consist of eccentricity (elliptical orbit), obliquity (axial tilt), and precession (wobble) of Earth’s orbit. Hannon shows that the “eccentricity and precession/summer insolation appear to correlate with the duration of the glacial cycles.” Both the eccentricity cycle and the glacial cycles have become increasingly longer in duration over the past 450 kyrs.  The start of an interglacial warm period occurs when eccentricity, obliquity and summer insolation are all increasing. Warm periods end due to decreasing obliquity. Hannon says climate models need to be changed to include astronomical forcings to reliably predict future climate changes. See here.


The Solar Variability Effect on Climate

Javier writes about how solar variability acts over the stratospheric pressure system transmitting the changes top-down, and over ocean temperatures bottom-up in this excellent article. Solar variability is highest at the short-wave part of the spectrum, where ultra-violet radiation can vary as much as 100% over an 11-yr solar cycle. Changing ultra-violet radiation has a strong effect on ozone in the stratosphere, which changes by about 3% over a solar cycle. Low solar activity appears to induce a contraction of the Hadley cells, and an expansion of the polar cells, steepening the Equator-to-Pole Temperature Tradient (EPTG). This increase of the EPTG causes an increasing amount of heat lost by the planet, thereby amplifying the direct cooling effect of lower solar irradiance.  A persistent North Atlantic oscillation negative phase intensifies the effects over this particularly sensitive region. See here.


Recent findings from the CLOUD

The Cosmics Leaving OUtdoor Droplets (CLOUD) experiment was created to

systematically test the link between galactic cosmic rays (GCRs) and climate. Several studies have shown correlations between GCRs and low-cloud cover on decadal and weekly time scales while other studies show a lack of correlation. An increase in GCRs modulated by solar activity cause an increase in small ions in the troposphere which increase the nucleation rate of 1 nanometer (nm) diameter aerosol particle, which may grow to diameters larger than 50 nm and act as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN), increasing cloud cover resulting in cooling. Recent CLOUD experiments at CERN show the GCR induced ions are responsible for around half of the nucleation. A paper published in the Journal of Geophysical Research shows that when the GCR intensity is changed by the amount over a solar cycle the change in CCN was only 0.2 – 0.3% at the altitude of low clouds. This is much too small of a CCN change to explain the observes 2% change in cloud cover. CCN respond too weakly to changes in GCRs to yield a significant influence on clouds and climate. However, other work suggests that cosmic rays could influence the freezing of liquid water in clouds or the amount of condensable material. See here.


Wetlands and Agriculture Responsible For Methane Increases, Not Oil and Gas

Methane levels in the atmosphere were stable from 1999 to 2007, but have increased since 2007 to 2015 by 53 part per billion. A NOAA news release says that the rare isotope carbon-13 “associated with oil and gas production had dropped ‘significantly’ over the same time frame. … Instead, the chemical fingerprints point toward agricultural and wetland emissions from the tropics,” The drop of carbon-13 rules out fossil fuels emissions, wildfires and biomass cook stoves as the reason for the post 2007 increase in methane. A methane expert at the University of London says that natural wetlands are responsible for most of the global methane growth since 2007, not agriculture. See here.


Statistical Link Between Solar Forcings and Ocean Variability

A study published in Climate Dynamics investigated the statistical link between solar forcing and ocean variability on various time scales. The authors found robust positive correlation between the Atlantic Multi-decadal oscillation (AMO) and solar activity, and negative correlation between the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and solar activity. See here.



CliSci # 264      2017-07-30


Sea Level Rise Is Not Accelerating

Willis Eschenbach calculated how well the tide gauge data fits a linear trend and a quadratic curve. He used 63 tide gauge records starting before 1950 and ending after 2015 which have more than 95% of the data. Using the R2 parameter to determine the goodness of fit, he found that in every record the accelerating fit was not statistically better than the linear fit. See his article here. I linearly infilled the missing data of the 63 tide gauge stations, removed the seasonal signal and created a graph of the 20-year and 30-year trends. The graph here shows the 20-year and 30-year trend at December 2015 was 1.50 mm/yr and 1.30 mm/yr, respectively. The maximum 30-year trend was 1.34 mm/y ending November 1983.


Electric Vehicles: Climate Saviors, or Not?

A paper published in Issues in Science and Technology shows “that the widespread introduction of electric vehicles (EV), by itself, is insufficient to lead to reduced carbon emissions from the transport sector.” The International Energy Agency (IEA) calculates that when EVs receive electricity with emission levels exceeding 559 gCO2/kWh, they are net contributors to carbon dioxide emissions when compared with conventional vehicles. However, many countries electrical generation exceed that emission level. China for example emits 712 gCO2/kWh of electricity generated, so an EV will result in increased emissions of 153 gCO2/kWh. An EV in Japan increases emissions by 13 gCO2/kWh. Most electrical grids are powered primarily by fossil fuels. See a summary here and the paper here.


Warming From Arctic Soot Underestimated

Dr. Sebastian Lüning and Prof. Fritz Vahrenholt reviews recent research of the warming effects of arctic soot, also known as black carbon aerosols. A paper found that soot deposited on glaciers in the European Alps caused them to retreat from their mid-19th century maximum. Without the soot, the glaciers should have continued to grow until about 1910.  A paper last year found a small decrease in albedo in Greenland from 1981 to 2012. Another paper reports that climate models consistently underestimate the amount of soot in the Arctic compared to actual measurements during the spring and winter seasons. Climate models are falsely attributing Arctic warming caused by soot to greenhouse gas warming. Correcting the warming from soot in the models would result in lower climate sensitivity to greenhouse gases. See here.


Australian Temperature Record

A paper Parker and Ollier, 2017 reviewed the Australian temperature record and found that “The global temperature trends provided by the Australian Bureau of Meteorology (BOM) are artificially exaggerated due to subjective and unidirectional adjustments of recorded values.” and “Over the full length of the long Australian records since the end of the 1800s, there is no sign of warming or increased occurrence of extreme events.” The average of the 30 longest temperature records mean maximum temperature trend is 0.04 °C/century, which is negligible. The government reported trend from 1910 is 0.85 °C/century. The authors write, “The climate trend maps compiled by Bureau of Meteorology in their climate change section are completely unreliable, as the alleged increasing temperature is obtained by lowering temperatures of the past by “adjustments. … Revising the raw temperature data of the past is an unscientific process that lies somewhere between dubious and fraudulent. ” See here.


Adjusting Measurements to Match the Models

Roger Andrews has published an analysis of adjustments to the raw temperature records. He used the raw data to reconstruct the GISS temperature index and found that the GISS index as published in 2000 for the southern hemisphere show about 0.3 °C more warming from 1900 than the raw temperature records. He then compares this old 2000 GISS series to the current GISS temperature series and shows that the current series added 0.2 °C warming in the northern hemisphere and 0.5 °C warming in the southern hemisphere. The BEST temperature record in South America before adjustments showed 58 station with a warming trend and 28 with a cooling trend. After the adjustments, all stations show a warming trend, and the average trend increased from 0.54 °C/century before adjustments to 1.09 °C/century after adjustments. See here.


Aerosol Forcing: Clouds Unfazed By Haze

Climate models use a large aerosol cooling effect during the tuning period to offset greenhouse gas forcing to roughly match the 20th century warming. CliSci # 262 here reported on a paper titled “Strong constraints on aerosol–cloud interactions from volcanic eruptions” that shows clouds “are well buffered against aerosol changes” so aerosol forcing is substantially smaller than in most models. Climate models with excessive cooling response from aerosols and high climate sensitivity should be rejected. Models that are adjusted to match the lower aerosol effects must also have low climate sensitivity to match the 20th century temperature history. See a discussion by Frank Bosse here.


CliSci # 263      2017-07-17


Drivers of Recent Global Temperature Variability

A paper published in Climate Dynamics quantifies the recent drivers of global temperature variability using an information theory technique called “Transfer Entropy”. It allocates the temperature variability during 1984 to 2005 as measured by the Met Office/Hadley Centre HadCRUT4.5 amount CO2, CH4, N2O, aerosols, TSI, ultra-violet (UV) , cosmic rays (CR) and ENSO.  Solar effects (TSI, UV and CR) are 17%, greenhouse gases (CO2, CH4 and N2O) are 48%, aerosols are 23% and ENSO is 12%. What is astonishing about this study is the climate change drivers that are ignored. During the period, the urban heat island effect caused 16% and the millennium warming cycle caused 3% of the warming. See the paper here.


Temperature Adjustments Account For ‘Nearly All Of The Warming’

A new study found adjustments made to global surface temperature readings by scientists in recent years “are totally inconsistent with published and credible U.S. and other temperature data.”  The study published at Tropical Hot Spot Research in June says the “cyclical pattern in the earlier reported data has very nearly been ‘adjusted’ out” of temperature readings taken from weather stations, buoys, ships and other sources. Almost all the surface temperature warming adjustments cool past temperatures and warm more current records, increasing the warming trend. See the Daily Caller article here and the study here.


Greenland Ice Sheet

Summit Station (also known as Summit Camp) is a high-altitude (3,216 m) year-round research station in central Greenland. The typical July maximum temperatures at the summit are -10 °C, but the temperature plunged on July 4th to record a record low temperature of only -33 °C. The surface mass balance over the ice sheet has had record or near record levels of accumulated snow and ice since the fall of last year. It snows more than it melts, but calving of icebergs also adds to the total mass budget of the ice sheet. The calving loss is usually greater than the gain from surface mass balance, but monthly calving losses are unavailable. See a GWPF article here and the Greenland surface mass balance graph here.


Greenland Cooling Since 2005

Temperature monitoring stations at Greenland show the near-surface temperatures have been declining since 2005 according to a paper by Kobashi et al 2017. The ice cap summit temperatures have declined by over 2 °C from 2005 to 2015. The paper also shows that Greenland’s temperatures were 3 to 5 °C warmer 7,000 to 8,000 years ago based on ice core data. A paper by Mangerud and Svendsen, 2017 shows that August temperatures at the Svalbard islands east of Greenland were 6 °C warmer 10,000 to 9,000 years ago than today based on a temperature-sensitive shallow marine molluscs. The paper by Lansher et al 2017 used multi-proxy lake records of northwest Greenland to show that summer temperatures were 2.5 to 4 °C warmer from 4000 to 8000 years ago than now. See here. The average of the RSS and UAH satellite analysis of the lower troposphere gives a temperature decline since 2005 of 0.13 °C/decade in the Greenland region. The Greenland temperatures are important as Greenland glacier melting contributes to sea level rise.


Storm Frequency in China has Declined 50% Since 1960

The frequency of hail storms, thunderstorms and high wind events has decreased by nearly 50% on average throughout China since 1960. The study published in Scientific Reports also found that the strength of the East Asian Summer Monsoon decreased during the period. The team analysed the records of the Chinese National Meteorology Information Center, a network of 983 weather observatories, which they say is “the most robust meteorological database known”. One of the researchers said “The frequency of thunderstorms and high winds decreased gradually over the time period we studied”. See here.


Wind Energy’s 8 Serious Disadvantages; Hurts Wealth and Health

This article explains 8 serious problems or disadvantages of wind energy.
1.    Unstable, erratic power supply
2.    Wind turbines are expensive
3.    Excess power is extremely difficult to store
4.    Destruction of natural habitat
5.    Bird kill: death from turbine blades
6.    Danger from flying ice
7.    Aesthetics and property values
8.    Wind turbines produce noise and infrasound
See here.


New RSS Satellite Dataset Says the Models are Wrong

CliSci #262 here reported that Remote Sensing Systems increases its lower troposphere warming trend by 36%. Dr. Roy Spencer point out that the new version did not make a significant change in the tropics. The trend from 1979 to May 2017 changed by an insignificant 0.011 °C/decade to 0.134 °C/decade. By contrast, the trend of the climate models is 0.282 C/decade, or a factor of 2.1 too high. The models produce far too much warming in the tropics because they incorrectly assume too much positive feedback due to water vapour and cloud changes, so the models overestimate future warming. See here.


CliSci # 262      2017-07-04


Remote Sensing Systems increases warming by 36%

Remote Sensing Systems (RSS) published a new version of its lower troposphere product which increased the linear warming trend from 1979 to May 2017 by 36%. The trend increased from 0.136 °C/decade in version 3.3 to 0.184 °C/decade in version 4.0.The RSS trend from the year 2000 increased by 68%. A graph comparing the two versions is here. For comparison, the University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH) trend is 0.124  °C/decade version 6.0 over the same period. A before-peer-review paper describing the new versions says it uses a new method to adjust for the effects of drifting local measurement time using information from the satellite measurements. See here. The trend difference between RSS v4 and UAH v6 from 1979 is an enormous 48!


Pronounced Differences Between Observed and CMIP5-simulated Multidecadal Climate Variability in the Twentieth Century

Sergey Kravtsov compared the climate model runs used in the last IPCC assessment report to temperature observations and found “The observed internal variability so estimated exhibits a pronounced multidecadal mode with a distinctive spatiotemporal signature, which is altogether absent in model simulations.” and “the models underestimate the magnitude of the observed variability and misrepresent its spatial pattern.”  The author of this paper says that our ability to interpret and forecast climate using these models is “limited”.  In plain language, the models are next to useless. See here.


Strong Constraints on Aerosol–cloud Interactions from Volcanic Eruptions

Large volcanic eruptions represent natural experiments to test the effects of aerosols on clouds. This study published in Nature shows “that the massive 2014–2015 fissure eruption in Holuhraun, Iceland, reduced the size of liquid cloud droplets—consistent with expectations—but had no discernible effect on other cloud properties.” The amount of liquid water in the clouds were “undetectable”.  This shows that most climate models have an excessive liquid water response to aerosols.  There was a significant global cooling from 1944 to 1976. Climate modelers partially simulate the lack of warming by assuming a large increase in clouds due to increasing human-made aerosols over the period. The study implies that human-made aerosols was not the main cause, but rather natural climate change from natural ocean oscillations and lower solar activity caused the cooling. This might force modelers to include natural climate change in future climate models. See the abstract here.


Skillful Prediction of Northern Climate Provided by the Ocean

A paper published in Nature Communications showed that “variations in ocean temperature in the high latitude North Atlantic and Nordic Seas are reflected in the climate of northwestern Europe and in winter Arctic sea ice extent.”  The authors show that a large part of the northern climate can be predicted up to a decade in advance by the state of the ocean currents. They predict that the Norwegian air temperature will decrease and the winter Arctic sea ice extent will increase towards 2020. See here.


NASA Detects a 24% Drop in Global Acreage Burned by Fire

An analysis of satellite data by NASA scientists and colleagues has determined that the global area of land burned each year declined by 24% between 1998 and 2015. The study found that savanna fires in Africa had declined by 700,000 km2, about the size of Texas. People of traditional cultures set fires to clear grazing lands of shrubs. As they build more permanent fields and villages the use of fire declines. Northern Australia also had a large decline in area burned by fire. The IPCC wrote in the AR5 2013 report “Increases in the frequency or intensity of ecosystem disturbances such as droughts, windstorms, fires and pest outbreaks have been detected in many parts of the world and in some cases are attributed to climate change (medium confidence).” The large drop in area burned by fire shows that the effect of climate change on fire is insignificant. See WUWT article here and Global Fire Emissions Database here.


THE BOTTOMLESS PIT: The Economics of Carbon Capture and Storage

Gordon Hughes, professor of economics at the University of Edinburgh, wrote a report on the economics of carbon capture and storage (CCS). This technology was intended to allow burning of fossil fuels without contributing greenhouse gases to the atmosphere by capturing and storing CO2 underground. The author finds the costs of carbon capture units have not decreased as much as was initially expected. The CCS was intended for base load coal-fired plants that operate 85-90% of the time, but these will operate a load factor of 55-65% in the future, which increases CCS costs by 40%, as the developing world invests in nuclear, intermittent renewable energy, and gas-fired plants. The cost of CCS will likely be US$160-200 per tCO2, which makes the technology prohibitively expensive. The upper limit that developing countries should pay for reducing CO2 emissions is only $50/tCO2. See here.


CliSci # 261      2017-06-22


Indirect Effects of the Sun on Earth’s Climate

Blogger Mike Jonas wrote an article that summarizes the two most important indirect effects of solar activity on climate and provides a way to look at them in the context of a coupled non-linear chaotic climate system. The first indirect solar effect discussed is the sun affecting the cosmic ray flux that enhances the growth of aerosols which seed cloud formation. The process chain of action has been demonstrated by laboratory experiments and observations from galactic cosmic rays to changes in clouds by Henrik Svensmark and the small team in Copenhagen. The second indirect solar effect is from changes in the ultra-violet (UV) portion of the solar spectrum that affects the amount of ozone in the stratosphere. The UV during the Maunder Minimum was about half of recent levels. An active sun causes more UV, more stratospheric ozone and warming which affects wind speeds resulting in large responses in the lower atmosphere. See here.


Climate Models Are Incorrectly Estimating Rainfall

Most global climate models are underestimating rainfall according to a new study. NASA and four universities compared climate data from 1995 to 2005 to 23 climate model simulations for the same period. More than 70 % of the climate models underestimated the amount of rain compared to real world observations. Warming leads to more rains in arid regions of the world. Extremely dry regions in Australia, California, Central Asia, Sinai and Southwestern Africa can all expect more rain. Previous research found that global warming has increased average annual rainfall by between 1 to 2 percent per decade since 1950, in wet and dry areas alike. Increasing rainfall would have beneficial environmental impacts for humanity. See here.


A Review of ‘Skeptical Science’ Alleged Myths

Friends of Science was requested to produce a response to the Skeptical Science rebuttal of the 10 “most used climate myths” used by climate skeptics. The website ‘Skeptical’ is popular among climate alarmists. It alleges to refute claims by climate skeptics that global warming is not a crisis. The website features a list of 10 alleged climate myths used by climate skeptics at the top left part of the webpage.  I review and rebut each rebuttal of the 10 alleged myths. I find that;
1.    Climate changes before CO2 changes
2.    The Sun’s effects on temperature peaked about 2002
3.    CO2 emissions leads to a better climate and a greening of the Earth
4.    There is no consensus on the magnitude of greenhouse gas warming
5.    The Earth was cooling for 18 years prior to 2016, disproving climate models
6.    The vertical profile of warming disagrees with climate models
7.    The surface temperature record is badly contaminated by urban effects
8.    Plants and animals can adapt to the future climate changes
9.    Ocean warming during the 18 yr hiatus points to low climate sensitivity
10.     The Antarctic ice sheets are gaining about 82 billion tonnes/year of ice.
See my review and rebuttal of Skeptic Science here.


Renewable Energy Cost and Reliability Claims Exposed and Debunked

An article by Larry Hamlin summarizes a paper that “exposes and debunks the contrived claims of a recent renewable energy study which falsely alleged that low cost and reliable 100% renewable energy electric grids are possible.”   Both papers were published by the Proceeding of the National Academy of Science. The new paper evaluated the study and found that it “used invalid modeling tools, contained modeling errors, and made implausible and inadequately supported assumptions.” The paper points out failure of the prior study to “deal with critical electric system reliability requirements”. Missing from the model are the ability to model frequency regulation, transmission requirements and operating reserves. The study “ignores transmission capacity expansion, power flows, and the logistics of transmission constraints.” The reliability needs of the grid must be provided by dispatchable electrical generation from fossil fuels and hydro power plants. Countries that have high installed solar and wind capacity have more than double the power cost of other countries, indicating that renewable energy is not cost effective. The paper’s abstract say “Policy makers should treat with caution any visions of a rapid, reliable, and low-cost transition to entire energy systems that relies almost exclusively on wind, solar, and hydroelectric power.” See Hamlin’s article here.


The Private Benefit of Carbon Dioxide

Dr. Richard Tol, co-developer of the FUND integrated assessment model, has calculated the average private benefit of carbon dioxide, which can be compared to FUND estimates of the social cost of carbon dioxide. The abstract of is paper says “The private benefit of carbon is the value, at the margin, of the energy services provided by the use of fossil fuels. …The private benefits is here estimated, for the first time, at US$411/tCO2.” Tol writes,  “The focus on the damage done by emitting an additional tonne of carbon dioxide sometimes drowns out the gains from cheap and abundant energy” and “affordable and reliable energy is a great good.” The private benefit of fossil fuels at the margin for residential electricity is US$1875/tCO2. By comparison, the social costs using the IPCC high climate sensitivity calculated by FUND in 2014 was US$6.6/tCO2. The social cost of carbon dioxide is negative (beneficial) when using lower, empirical-based estimates of climate sensitivity to CO2 emissions. See the paper here.


Northern Hemisphere Snow Cover

Was global warming supposed to reduce snow cover? See environment Canada’s northern hemisphere snow cover graph here. It shows that snow cover since April 20 has been more than one standard deviation above the 1998 to 2011 average observations.


Causality of the Drought in the Southwestern United States

A paper published in the Journal of Climate analyzed the driving forces of the now-ended drought in the southwestern United States. The paper shows that the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) and solar activity were the main drivers of the drought, with solar activity being the main driver over the past 120 years. The abstract says “we find that both the droughts in the 1900s and in the 21st century were affected by the PDO and solar activity, whereas the droughts from the 1950s to the 1970s were mainly affected by solar activity.” See here.


CliSci # 260      2017-06-08


Mitigating Urban Warming is Cost Effective

A study published in Nature Climate Change shows that policies to reduce the urban heat island effect (UHIE) are very cost effective. The study suggests that the social costs of increasing temperatures in cities could be twice that of rural area. During the period 1950 to 2011, 65% of urban areas warmed by 0.6 °C more than the world average, or at twice the world rate. Temperatures in cities warm faster than rural areas due to increases in heat absorbing surfaces including concrete and asphalt, tall building disrupting the boundary layer and increasing energy use in cities. Cities occupy about 1% of the earth’s surface area and consume 78% of global energy production. The researchers did cost benefit analysis of programs to reduce the UHIE. They found that changing 20% of a city’s roofs and half of its pavements to sunlight reflecting ‘cool’ forms could save up to 12 times what they cost to install and maintain, and reduce air temperatures by about 0.8 °C. See here. Most weather stations are located in cities and the temperature indexes used to track warming are not corrected for the UHIE.


EPA is Told to Revoke the Scientifically Invalid CO2 Endangerment Finding

The Concerned Household Electricity Consumers Council announces that on May 8, 2017 it filed with the USA EPA a supplement to the Council’s January 20, 2017 petition asking the Agency to reconsider the scientifically invalid Endangerment Finding on which all Obama-era greenhouse gas regulations are based. The petition relies on research by Wallace 2017 et al that estimates the impacts of the key natural factors on temperatures. The research claims that CO2 does not have a statistically significant affect on temperatures. The council’s press release also says “climate models show a pattern of warming in the tropical troposphere that simply does not exist in nature–the Missing Tropical Hot Spot. Thus, the climate models have been invalidated and cannot be relied upon by EPA for attribution analysis in its Endangerment Finding.” See the press release and commentary here.


Indirect Positive Effects of Ocean Acidification (Neutralization)

Most studies that report negative effects of decreasing pH level are based on simple laboratory experiments that may not apply to natural communities of sea organisms. A study by Connell et al evaluated the food and habitat relationship for a calcifying gastropod species living near CO2 vents in the southwest Pacific Ocean. The study found that the amount of algae increased nearer the CO2 vent which caused an increase in the abundance of the gastropod. The gastropods were thriving under lower pH conditions due to the increased food availability from algae. CO2 enrichment acts as a direct resource for photosynthetic organisms that are a food resource for calcifying species that completely overpowers any negative direct effects.  See a review by CO2 Science here.  The IPCC’s AR5 report shows the ocean pH has declined from 8.12 in 1980 to 8.08 in 2010.  Numbers above 7.0 are alkaline and 7.0 is neutral. The ocean could never become acidic.


Early 20th Century Arctic Warming Caused by Ocean Oscillations

The northern hemisphere and the Arctic warmed rapidly from 1904 to 1944, followed by 30 years of cooling. A news release from Kyoto University says that scientists have “discovered” that the warming occurred when interdecadal warming phases of both the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans coincided.  They report that “early 20th century sea surface temperatures in the tropical Pacific and North Atlantic had warmed much more than previously thought”. The team found that when the interdecadal ocean oscillations were included in simulation, the results properly reflect early Arctic conditions.“ See here.


Carbon Dioxide Emissions Rise in Germany, Fall is USA as Merkel Criticizes Trump

German Chancellor Angela Merkel criticized President Trump’s decision to withdraw from the Paris climate agreement. Merkel said she “regrets” Trump’s decision and will continue to work to “save our Earth.” But data from Germany’s Federal Ministry of Environment shows that Germany hasn’t reduced its CO2 emissions in 7 years and emitted more CO2 in 2016 than in 2009. Germany is failing horribly to reach its emissions targets. Germany’s CO2 emissions increased in 2016 over 2015 due to higher heating requirements due to a cold winter and increases in emissions from transportation. Meanwhile, CO2 emissions from energy consumption in the USA declined from 6000 million metric tons (MMT) in 2005 to 5150 MMT in 2016, a decline of 14%. The decline is mainly due to hydraulic fracturing and horizontal drilling in gas reservoirs which caused natural gas to replace coal in power generation. The USA’s emission decline of 850 MMTCO2 since 2005 is almost as large Germany’s total 2016 emissions of 906 MMTCO2.  See here and here.


The Correlation of Seismic Activity and Recent Global Warming

Increasing seismic activity in the high geothermal flux areas of the oceans may play an important role in Arctic and global warming over the last sixty years. An article by Viterito 2017 demonstrates that “increasing seismic activity in the globe’s high geothermal flux areas (HGFA) is strongly correlated with global temperatures (r=0.814) from 1979-2016.” Increasing seismic activity at the mid-ocean’s spreading zones serves as a proxy indicator of higher geothermal flux in these regions. The additional mid-ocean heating causes an acceleration of the ocean overturning circulation which transports more heat into the Arctic. This is an update of a paper published in 2016 in the Journal of Earth Science & Climatic Change that gave a lower correlation (r=0.785) using data to 2015. The article claims the HGFA heat flux and seismicity accounts for about two-thirds of the variation in global temperatures since 1979. The paper also indicates that jumps in the seismic activity amplifies El Nino events, which occurred at the large 1998 and 2016 El Nino events. See the article here and the 2016 paper here.


CliSci # 259      2017-05-25


Extreme Weather Mortality Events Were Worse in the Past

The World Meteorlogical Organization has published a webpage showing  Global Weather & Climate Extremes, including mortality of some weather events. Some events listed are;

Highest temperature:  56.7°C on July 10, 1913 at Furnace Creek, California, USA
Greatest 1-hr rainfall: 305 mm on June 22, 1947 at Holt, Mo, USA
Highest tropical cyclone mortality: 300,000 on November 12, 1970 at Bangladesh
Highest tornado mortality: 1,300 on April 26, 1989 at Manikganj, Bangladesh
Note that the highest temperature occurred more than a century ago. See here.


Calgary Temperature Change

A document “Calgary's Climate Program” included this statement “Over the past century, Calgary's average temperature has increased by 1.4°C, with most of that increase occurring since 1970.”, here. A graph I prepared of the Calgary international Airport temperature history here shows that the mean temperatures trend from 1900 to 2016 is 0.076 °C/decade, or 0.88 °C over 116 years. The mean maximum temperature trend is an insignificant 0.021 °C/decade. (The mean maximum temperature in a year is the average of the 12 monthly mean maximum daily temperatures.) The mean trend over the last 100 years is 0.088 °C/decade, giving a rise of 0.88 °C, much less than the 1.4 °C reported in the City of Calgary document. The mean maximum 100-year trend (1917-2016) is only 0.018 °C/decade. The mean maximum July and August temperatures have generally been falling. The July 1900-2016 mean maximum trend is -0.108 °C/decade as shown here. The July mean max 100-year trend is -0.226 °C/decade, so July maximum temperature are now more than 2 °C cooler than 100 years ago. Almost all of the mean temperature rise is due to rising minimum temperatures which are entirely beneficial and are mostly due to the urban warming effect. The airport and Calgary have grown greatly over the last 100 years.


Earth Is Becoming GREENER due to CO2 and Climate Change

The previous Clisci #258 here reported that a new analysis of forests “found” 467 million hectares of previously unreported forest, which increases estimated global forest area by 9%. Last year Zhu et al reported that over 25% to 50% of the global vegetated area is greening, with CO2 emissions causing 70% and climate change (warming) causing 8% of the greening trend. Dr. Pat Michaels writes “virtually every place where there’s newly detected forest [it] is greening, and a large number of these are doing it in a statistically significant fashion. This leads to a remarkable hypothesis—that one of the reasons the forested regions were undercounted in previous surveys (among other reasons) is that there wasn’t enough vegetation present to meet Bastin’s criterion for “forest”, which is greater than 10% tree cover, and carbon dioxide and global warming changed that.” See here.


Climate and Epidemics in China

A paper by Lee et al. (2017) analyzed the relationship between climate and infectious disease epidemics in China over the period 1370-1909 AD. There were a total of 5961 epidemic incidents in China during the period. The level of precipitation was not significantly correlated with epidemic count. The scientist found that in China a standard deviation decrease in temperature (about 0.8 °C) caused an increase of 162 epidemic outbreaks. The abstract says “cooling drove up epidemic outbreaks in northern and central China…”. This directly contradicts  integrated assessment models that assume warming causes more disease and social cost. See the abstract here and a summary and graph here.


The Impacts of Urban Heat Islands in the Spanish Mediterranean

A paper published in the Journal of Mediterranean Meteorology and Climatology investigated the urban heat island effect (UHIE) in the Spanish Mediterranean. The study analyzed temperature series over the 1950–2013 period. The scientists found most of the temperature rise of urban stations occurred in the minimum temperatures, an indication of the UHIE. Satellite-based AVHRR infrared imagery was used to study the urbanization effects from 2001 to 2014, and urban temperatures were compared to rural temperatures . The abstract says “The results obtained have shown both the nature of the [UHIE] phenomenon and its significant magnitude. This magnitude could account for between 70 and 80% of the recorded warming trend in Western Mediterranean cities. Therefore, failure to take this process into account might seriously bias any analysis of regional thermal evolution, the main aim of this study and an aim that equally affects the hypothesis of global climate change.”  The paper’s conclusion states, “in these Western Mediterranean cities, the Urban Heat Island could account for up to 80% of the recorded warming." The abstract is here, the paper is here.


European Mean Sea Level Shows No Acceleration

European sea level records are among the best to detect an acceleration due to climate change.  A paper Watson 2017 published in the Journal of Coastal Research used advanced techniques to analyze 83 long tide gauge station records across Europe. Most of the records are more than 100 years. The abstract states “Key findings are that at the 95% confidence level, no consistent or compelling evidence (yet) exists that recent rates of rise are higher or abnormal in the context of the historical records available across Europe, nor is there any evidence that geocentric rates of rise are above the global average. It is likely a further 20 years of data will distinguish whether recent increases are evidence of the onset of climate change–induced acceleration.” In other word, the data shows no indication of an AGW induced sea level rise acceleration. See the open access paper here.


CliSci # 258      2017-05-13


Climate Dogma Exposed

Friends of Science hosted a successful dinner and speaker event at the Red & White Club in Calgary on May 9, attended by over 300 people. Robert Lyman spoke on “Can Canada Survive Climate Change Policy?. Steve Goreham gave a slide presentation on “Climate Science and the Myths of Renewable Energy”. Our event page here includes links to Lyman’s speech and Goreham’s slide presentation. Steve Goreham also sold and autographed copies of his new book “Outside the Green Box – Rethinking Sustainable Development”. You can order the book from his website here.


Antarctic Ice Sheet Mass Balance

A paper by Shepherd el al 2012 estimates the Antarctic ice sheet lost 71 ± 83 gigatonnes (Gt) per year from 1992 and 2011, which contributed 0.20 mm/yr to sea level rise. At that rate it would take 50 years for the Antarctic ice sheet to contribute 1 cm to sea level rise. The ice mass change in East Antarctica, West Antarctica and the Antarctic Peninsula was +14, -65 and -20 Gt/yr, respectively. However, a recent paper Martin-Español et al 2017 estimates the East Antarctica total mass trend for 2003 to 2013 at +57 ± 20  Gt/yr, which is much higher mass gain than the +14 Gt/y of the earlier period. The authors used a combination of satellite altimetry, gravimetry, Global Position Satellite data with assumptions of geophysical processes. The paper shows there is great uncertainty of the allocation of the mass trends between the surface mass balance and ice dynamics. The results suggest that the total Antarctic ice sheet loss may have declined from 71 Gt/yr to 28 Gt/yr. See here.


Corals Are Adapting to a Warming Climate

A study published in the journal Marine Ecology Progress by the Wildlife Conservation Society reveals evidence that some corals are adapting to warming ocean waters. The study looked at responses to extreme temperature exposures in the same reefs over time, and found less coral bleaching in 11 of the 21 coral species studied. The study took place in two marine national parks of Kenya. Looking at two similarly severe warming events in 1998 and 2016, McClanahan found that the number of pale and bleached coral colonies declined from 73 to 27%, and 96 to 60% in the two parks with different background temperatures. Most of this change was due to about half of the most common species that did not bleach strongly in 2016. Bleaching takes place when stressed corals discharge beneficial algae that supply energy to corals causing them to turn pale or white and often starve. See the news release here.


A Paleo-perspective on Ocean Heat Content

A paper Rosenthal et al 2017 used proxy records from sediment cores and corals to create a 10,000 year record of ocean heat content [OHC]. The abstract states in part “Here we review proxy records of intermediate water temperatures from sediment cores and corals in the equatorial Pacific and northeastern Atlantic Oceans, spanning 10,000 years beyond the instrumental record. These records suggests that intermediate waters were 1.5–2 °C warmer during the Holocene Thermal Maximum than in the last century. Intermediate water masses cooled by 0.9 °C from the Medieval Climate Anomaly to the Little Ice Age. These changes are significantly larger than the temperature anomalies documented in the instrumental record. The implied large perturbations in OHC and Earth's energy budget are at odds with very small radiative forcing anomalies throughout the Holocene and Common Era. We suggest that even very small radiative perturbations can change the latitudinal temperature gradient and strongly affect prevailing atmospheric wind systems and hence air-sea heat exchange.” A graph of the reconstructed heat content is here.  This study shows that small solar changes, which is the only source of radiative forcing during the period, cause large temperature changes. See here.


Are Methane Seeps in the Arctic Slowing Global Warming?

Biogeochemist John Pohlman of the U.S. Geological Survey and his team measured methane and carbon dioxide concentrations at the ocean surface above known methane seeps near Svalbard, about midway between continental Norway and the North Pole, during the Arctic summer. They found that the CO2 levels dropped whenever their ship crossed a methane seep. An article in Science says “Pohlman and his team conclude that the same physical forces that are pushing the methane bubbles up are also pumping nutrient-rich cold waters from the sea bed to the surface, fertilizing phytoplankton blooms that soak up CO2”. The study found that 1900 times more CO2 is being absorbed than methane emitted, so that the cooling benefit of CO2 sequestration is 230 times greater than the warming effect from the methane emissions. See the Science article here.


Found: ‘Lost’ Forests Covering an Area Two-thirds the Size of Australia

The Conversation of Australia reports that a new global analysis of the distribution of forests and woodlands has “found” 467 million hectares of previously unreported forest – an area equivalent to 60% of the size of Australia. The discovery increases the known amount of global forest cover by around 9%, and will significantly boost estimates of how much carbon is stored in plants worldwide.” Previous surveys were based on lower resolution satellite imagery without ground validation. This study used higher-resolution satellite imagery along with field information and validation. The survey found that drylands contain 45% more forest than has been previously reported.  Dryland forests were previously difficult to identify globally due to the low density of trees. The study increases the estimates of global forest carbon stock by between 2% and 20%.  See the article here, and the abstract of the journal article Bastin et al 2017 here.


Matt Ridley; Wind Turbines are Neither Clean nor Green

Matt Ridley writes a provocative article showing that wind energy will never provide a significant portion of the world’s energy needs. He asks: To the nearest whole number, what percentage of the world’s energy consumption was supplied by wind power in 2014, the last year for which there are reliable figures? Was it 20 per cent, 10 per cent or 5 per cent? None of the above: it was; See here.


CliSci # 257      2017-04-29


Last Chance to Purchase Tickets for The Friends of Science Society Annual Climate Science and Policy Event “Climate Dogma Exposed”

Ticket sales end on May 1st, 2017 for the event on May 9, 2017 at the Red and White Club, McMahon Stadium, Calgary. It features a buffet dinner starting at 6 pm and two guest speakers: Robert Lyman, Ottawa energy policy consultant, former public servant and author of numerous reports, speaking on “Can Canada Survive Climate Change Policy?”; and Steve Goreham, author of The Mad, Mad World of Climatism and Outside the Green Box, speaking on “Climate Science and the Myths of Renewable Energy”. Buy your tickets onllne HERE, and click here for more information.


How Inconstant are Climate Feedbacks?

Nic Lewis published a rebuttal of a new paper by Kyle Armour which made two claims; 1, that long-term equilibrium climate sensitivity (ECS) from climate models are on average 26% about that inferred during transient warming over the historical period (ECSinfer), ie, that feedbacks increase over time, and 2, that climate sensitivity inferred during transient warming from climate models are consistent with energy budget observations.  Armor estimated the modeled ECS by using simulations that abruptly quadrupled the CO2 concentrations, as the models take thousands of years to reach temperature equilibrium. Lewis finds that Armour over estimated the CO2 forcing by using a too short of an regression period. Lewis estimates that in climate models, the median ratio of ECS/ECSinfer is 1.16, which is under half of Armour’s value. However, Armour’s results are almost irrelevant to forecast temperature response at the end of this century because year “2100 warming will depend very largely on the level of the transient climate response”, not on ECS. There is no observational evidence that climate sensitivity increases in the real climate system. The second claim is refuted by noting that the ECS from Lewis and Curry 2015 is 1.6 °C (or 1.45 °C using Stevens’ aerosol forcing) is much lower than the ECSinfer value of 3.0 °C from climate models. See Lewis’ post here.


Antarctic Ice Reveals Earth’s Accelerating Plant Growth

A paper by Campbell et al 2017 used data from an Antarctic ice core to show that the gross primary production of plants has increased by 31% ± 5% in the 20th century compared to pre-industrial times. The estimate was determined by measuring the decline in a rare molecule ‘carbonyl sulfide’. Plants absorb and destroy it, reducing the level of carbonyl sulfide as plants grow.  The paper’s abstract is here.  The New York Times reported April 5, 2017 “Analyzing the ice, Dr. Campbell and his colleagues have discovered that in the last century, plants have been growing at a rate far faster than at any other time in the last 54,000 years.” The extra carbon stored in plants is 28 billion tons each year, or three times the carbon in crops harvested every year.  See here. The greening of the earth can also be measured by satellites, but only since 1982, and it only gives a rough guide to plant growth as it measures leaf area only, not the growth of roots and tree trunks.


Delayed North Atlantic Response to Solar Forcing of the Stratospheric Polar Vortex

A study by Yukimoto et al., 2017 used a climate model to simulate the effects of the 11-year solar cycle on the strength of the winter stratospheric polar vortex. The solar cycle includes ~5% changes in the ultraviolet radiation which changes the stratospheric ozone and heats the air causing stratospheric circulation changes. This results in changes to the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), which is the dominant mode of atmospheric variability over the Atlantic. The NAO is the oscillation in sea-level pressures between the Iceland and Azores regions. Recent studies show the NAO is delayed about 3 years from the solar forcing via changes in the stratospheric zonal winds. This study shows the stratosphere signal penetrates into the troposphere during late winter to spring. The NAO response first occurs in January. The largest temperature anomalies of 0.9 °C and -1.1 °C occur between 40 °N and 45 °N at a lag of +3 and -3 years, respectively. The article concludes that “the major solar influence  on  the  Earth’s  surface  can  be  produced  through  changes in stratospheric  circulation,  and  the  spatial  structure  of  the  solar signal at the Earth’s surface is largely conditioned by atmosphere’s interaction with the ocean.” See here.


Solar Influences on Climate Over the Atlantic / European Sector

A paper by Gray et al 2017 describes the observed 11-year solar cycle temperature signal at the Earth’s surface and the mechanism involving the ultraviolet radiation effects on stratospheric ozone. The Pacific ocean surface temperature shows both warming and cooling regions resembling the Pacific Decadal Oscillation. There is a significant correlation between the solar forcing and the sea-level pressure at 3 to 4 years lag after solar maximum in the North Atlantic. The large increase in ultra-violet radiation at solar maximum results in increased stratospheric ozone and heating, which causes increased westerlies in the subtropics.  This results in a cooler, more stable polar vortex in solar maximum years. Winter zonal winds in the lower stratosphere influences the troposphere and the position of the Atlantic jetstream, thereby affecting the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), being the pressure difference between Iceland and the Azores. The sea surface temperature (SST) response to the NAO can explain the 3 to 4 year lag of the sea level pressure response over the Atlantic. The SST anomaly produced in the winter will persist below the mixed-layer during the following summer and re-emerge the next winter. During solar maximum the NAO can be enhance by additional forcing of a positive NAO via the ocean from the previous winter’s SST anomaly. This mechanism will cause significant solar-induced temperature variations in the North Atlantic and Europe. See here.


Robust Relationship Between Solar Wind Speed and North Atlantic Oscillation Discovered

An interdisciplinary team of researchers in China over the last 5 years examined the impacts of solar activity and earth motion factors on climate change. The solar flux is considered the fundamental energy source of earth’s climate system on long time scales.  The team found a robust relationship between solar wind speed and the North Atlantic Oscillation in the winter on both a day-to-day scale and yearly variation, suggesting a much faster solar influence on climate than by ozone destruction by ultraviolet radiation. The scientists evaluated the effects of solar energetic particle flux on cloud charge, and they propose that “the solar wind and electric-microphysical effect was the key mechanism of solar activity on climate.” They demonstrated the marked impact of cloud droplet electricity on the collision efficiency of cloud condensation nuclei. This suggests that the collision in a cloud microphysics process constitutes the core link between atmospheric electricity and climate. The team constructed a physical model depicting the interdecadal response of the air-sea system to solar activity. The results are summarized here. The results were published in Atmospheric and Oceanic Science Letters here


CliSci # 256      2017-04-09


Climate Dogma Exposed – FoS Annual Event May 9, 2017

The Friends of Science Society annual climate science and policy event “Climate Dogma Exposed” will be on May 9, 2017 at the Red and White Club, McMahon Stadium, Calgary. It features a buffet dinner starting at 6 pm and two guest speakers: Robert Lyman, Ottawa energy policy consultant, former public servant and author of numerous reports, speaking on “Can Canada Survive Climate Change Policy?”; and Steve Goreham, author of The Mad, Mad World of Climatism and Outside the Green Box, speaking on “Climate Science and the Myths of Renewable Energy”. Buy your tickets onllne HERE, and click here for more information.


Twelfth International Conference on Climate Change

The Heartland Institute held the 12th International conference on climate change in Washington, D.C. on March 23 & 24, 2017. See videos of the all of the presentations here.  Some notable presentations are; Steve Goreham, who will a guest speaker at the FoS event on May 9, gave a presentation on sustainable development here. Dr. Ross McKitrick gives a presentation titled “Uses and Abuses of the Social Cost of Carbon” here. Dr. Willy Soon discusses the history of Arctic sea ice here. Dr. Craig Idso shows the monetary benefit of increasing CO2 on food production here. Dr. Pat Micheals discusses “Vacating the Endangerment Finding” which is required to repeal the US regulations against CO2 emissions, here.


Climate Scientists Tell Congress to Create a Climate Red Team

Prominent climate scientists have told a US congressional committee on March 29, 2017, that climate science as reported by UN and official government reports is dysfunctional, beset by bias and groupthink, and is using a profoundly unscientific approach. Dr. John Christy said: “Congress needs a parallel, scientifically-based assessment of the state of climate science. Many important issues are left out of government-directed climate reports entirely; our policymakers need to see the entire range of findings regarding climate change”. He argued that Congress should “fund credible ‘red teams’ that look at issues such as natural variability, the failure of climate models”. See the written testimony of Dr. J. Curry, Dr. J. Christy, Dr. M. Mann and Dr. R. Pielke, Jr. here. A video of the hearing is here, starting at 16:20.


Freshening of the Labrador Sea as a Trigger for  the Little Ice Age

A paper published this month in Climate of the Past uses high resolution record of ice rafting in the Labrador Sea to show that Arctic freshwater discharges to the Labrador Sea from melting glaciers reduces the amount of heat transported to high latitudes. The warmth during the Medieval Warm Period caused Greenland glacial melting that freshened the Labrador Sea and reduced the sub-polar ocean circulation, thereby reducing the ocean heat transport to the northern Atlantic. This would make the North Atlantic climate more unstable such that reduced solar irradiance and volcanoes could easily drive periods of severe cold conditions in Europe and the North Atlantic like the [Little Ice Age] LIA. This process drives long term climate cycles that are not included in climate models. Natural warming from the LIA are incorrectly attributed by the IPCC to greenhouse gas warming. See here.


Energy Return on Energy Invested (ERoEI) for Photovoltaic Solar Systems in Regions of Moderate Insolation

A paper by Ferroni Hapkirk analysed critically the photovoltaic (PV) solar power sources in regions of moderate insolation by using the concept of Energy Return on Energy Invested (ERoEI). The analysis used data from Switzerland and Germany. The ERoEI is the total energy output from a system divided by the total energy invested over the system lifetime. The paper reports “PV technologies, consume per unit of electricity produced, 64 times more material resources, 7 times more human resources und 10 times more capital than nuclear technology.” The analysis shows that the ERoEI is the energy return of 2203 kWh/m2 divided by the energy invested of 2664 kWh/m2, giving a ratio of 0.82. Due to the time value of money, a ERoEI of less than 5 is non-sustainable. The paper concludes “today’s PV technologies cannot be termed an energy source, but rather a non-sustainable energy sink or a non-sustainable NET ENERGY LOSS.” See the paper here.


Recent Increase in Oceanic Carbon Uptake Driven by Weaker Upper-Ocean Overturning

Recent data show that oceanic CO2 uptake rates have been growing over the past decade reversing a trend of stagnant or declining carbon uptake during the 1990s. This article shows that ocean circulation variability is the primary driver of these changes in oceanic CO2 uptake over the past several decades. The weakening upper-ocean overturning circulation during the 2000s decreased the outgassing of natural CO2, strengthening the CO2 sink and trapping natural CO2 in the deep ocean. See here.


Sun's impact on Climate Change Quantified

A study funded by the Swiss National Science Foundation quantified the effects of solar variability on climate change. The researchers calculated solar radiative forcing taking into account particles and electromagnetic radiation. The solar variations were set to match the natural climate changes over the last few millennia. The researchers estimated the contribution that the sun is expected to make to temperature change in the next 100 years. They expect the Earth's temperature to fall by half a degree Celsius within the next 50 to 100 years when solar activity reaches its next minimum. This would offset most of the expected warming from greenhouse gas emission to the end of the century. See the news release here.



CliSci # 255      2017-03-23


Climate Dogma Exposed – FoS Annual Event May 9, 2017

The Friends of Science Society annual climate science and policy event “Climate Dogma Exposed” will be on May 9, 2017 at the Red and White Club, McMahon Stadium, Calgary. It features a buffet dinner starting at 6 pm and two guest speakers: Robert Lyman, Ottawa energy policy consultant, former public servant and author of numerous reports, speaking on “Can Canada Survive Climate Change Policy?”; and Steve Goreham, author of The Mad, Mad World of Climatism and Outside the Green Box, speaking on “Climate Science and the Myths of Renewable Energy”. Buy your tickets onllne HERE, and click here for more information.


Regional Climate Impacts of a Possible Future Grand Solar Minimum

This paper investigates the effects of a future grand solar minimum on global regional climates using a global climate model. The modeling only considers changes in the ultraviolet radiation component of the total solar irradiance (TSI). It does not consider the indirect effects of solar flux on clouds. The paper shows results for two scenarios. In experiment B, the ultraviolet component of solar irradiance declines by 1.76 W/m2 or 6.4%, while TSI declines by  0.129% with no change to the non-ultraviolet component. The global cooling with respect to a base case for the period 2050 to 2099 was only 0.12 °C.  The regional cooling of Northern Europe, Northern Asia and Eastern North America during winters for the period 2050 to 2099 were 0.75 °C, 0.53 °C and 0.43 °C, respectively. For comparison, the expected anthropogenic CO2 warming expected from 2010 to the 2075 (the mid-point of the time range) assuming a transient temperature response of 0.85 °C (determined here) is 0.44 °C. Therefore, if the sun has no effect on cloud cover, which is unlikely, Northern Europe winter temperatures would decline by 0.31 °C by 2075. The ultraviolet solar irradiance is linked to modulation of the Arctic and North Atlantic Oscillations. The solar minimum reduces the solar ultraviolet heating of the tropical stratosphere, which changes the subtropical stratospheric winds and modifies the equator-to-pole temperature gradient. The signal is propagated poleward and down through the troposphere. See the open source paper here.  h/t Ken Allen.


Half of Arctic Ice Loss in Due to Natural Cycles

A major paper by Ding et al published in Nature Climate Change that studied natural and man-made Arctic warming said that “a decades-long natural warming of the Arctic climate might be tied to shifts as far away as the tropical Pacific Ocean.” The authors used several climate models and different reanalysis products. The models were adjusted to observed wind fields. The authors find that “summertime [air] circulation contributes to as much as a 60% of the sea ice loss since 1979” and that “about 50% of the circulation change and the associated warming over Greenland are attributable to internal variability originating from the tropical Pacific Ocean.”  They attribute 30-50% of sea ice loss to internal variability. The paper concludes “The potentially large contribution of internal variability to sea ice loss over the next 40 years reinforces the importance of natural contributions to sea ice trends over the past several decades. The similarity of high latitude circulation variability associated with sea ice loss to the teleconnections with the tropical Pacific suggests a contribution of sea ice losses from SST trends across the tropical Pacific Ocean. The paper ignored the effects of black carbon on ice and snow. See a UK DailyMail article here and the paper here.


Climate Response Time to Double Carbon Dioxide

The IPCC’s fifth assessment report claims that equilibrium climate sensitivity (ECS) is likely in the range of 1.5 to 4.5 °C. The ECS is defined as the global average surface temperature change due a doubling of carbon dioxide after allowing the oceans to reach temperature equalization. But how long does it take for the oceans to reach equilibrium? This can only be estimated by climate models. One study gives this graph, which shows the time to temperature equalization for the northern and southern hemispheres. It shows that 95% of the equilibrium temperature response occurs in about 900 years in the northern hemisphere and 3300 years in the southern hemisphere. Global temperature will reach 95% of temperature equalization due to a doubling of CO2 in about 2200 years. See the paper “Time Scales of Climate Response” here. The value of money at a 4% real discount rate declines to 0.0000000000000002% in 1000 years. Events on these time scales are irrelevant to current policy decisions, so the IPCC’s emphasis on ECS is misleading. The transient climate response TCR is the temperature change at the time of CO2 doubling. The most realistic empirical estimate of TCR, which takes into account of the urban warming and the millennium warming cycle is 0.85 °C in 125 years.


Heartland 12th Conference on Climate Change

The Heartland Institute is holding the 12th International conference on climate change in Washington, DC today and tomorrow, March 23-24, 2017.  The Heartland newsletter says the conference presents scientists, economists and US elected officials who “will explain how and why the Trump administration should reset climate policy away from the fake science and alarmism of the Obama years and toward real science and data.” Watch live video streaming of the conference here.


Lifetime Performance of World’s First Offshore Wind Farm

The world’s first offshore windfarm is now being dismantled in Denmark. It operated for 25 years from 1991 to 2016 with a lifetime capacity factor of 22%.  Cost and operating statistics of its operation lead to the conclusion: “While turbines are getting larger, able to operate at lower wind speeds, and improving their capacity factors, the total lifecycle cost per unit of energy provided from offshore wind has not perceptibly decreased from 1991 to 2015. Higher costs of O&M for larger turbines farther offshore seems to consume savings from higher capacity factors.” See here.


CliSci # 254      2017-03-12


California Megaflood: Lessons from a Forgotten Catastrophe

Geologic evidence shows that truly massive floods, caused by rainfall alone, have occurred in California every 100 to 200 years….. during the winter of 1861-62. This disaster turned enormous regions of the state into inland seas for months, and took thousands of human lives. The costs were devastating: one quarter of California’s economy was destroyed, forcing the state into bankruptcy….. Such floods are likely caused by atmospheric rivers: narrow bands of water vapor about a mile above the ocean that extend for thousands of kilometers.
In 1861, farmers and ranchers were praying for rain after two exceptionally dry decades. In December their prayers were answered with a vengeance, as a series of monstrous Pacific storms slammed—one after another—into the West coast of North America, from Mexico to Canada. The storms produced the most violent flooding residents had ever seen, before or since…..” See here.


The Permian-Triassic Mass Extinction Was Caused by an Ice Age

Scientists had previously thought that the Permian-Triassic mass extinction that resulted in the extinction of 95% of marine species about 250 million years ago was caused by global warming. New research published by scientists from Switzerland show that the mass extinction was actually caused by an ice age induced by volcanic eruptions in Siberia. The volcanism reduced the amount of solar radiation reaching the Earth’s surface. The ice age preceded the global warming by 500,000 years. The researchers discovered that the mass extinction occurred when sea levels fell during the glaciations of an ice age. The ice age which lasted 80,000 years was sufficient to cause the extinction. The researcher used the radioactive decay of uranium to accurately date sediments in China. See ScienceDaily here.


New Satellite Temperature Dataset Paper from UAH Published

The technical paper explaining the methodology and results of the new version 6 of the University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH) satellite temperature dataset was published online March 7, 2017. The UAH ver. 6 reduced the global lower troposphere (LT) temperature trend from 1979 to 2016 by 0.031 °C/decade to 0.123 °C/decade compared to the previous UAH ver. 5.6. The global 21st century LT temperature trend from 2001 to 2016 was reduced by 0.076 °C/decade to 0.088 °C/decade. The UAH ver. 6 has higher spatial resolution, a new method for grid-point averaging, a new multi-channel method of computing the LT temperatures and a new method to correct for diurnal drift. The submitted paper is here.


Arctic Ocean Sea Ice Variability Over the Last Ten Thousand Years

A paper by Stein et al published in February 2017 in the Journal of Quaternary Science shows that Arctic sea ice variability during the last 10,000 years, during the Holocene, is modulated by variations in solar activity. The study presented sea ice records from two sediment cores recovered from the Arctic ocean. The record shows a significant increased sea ice extent during the last 4,500 years. The sea ice millennial variability was caused by changes in ocean currents from the Pacific ocean into the Arctic ocean and the long-term decrease in solar insolation. The short-term centennial variability is related to solar forcing. The 20th century sea ice extent was greater than most of the Holocene period except for the Little Ice Age. See an article by Kenneth Richard here and the abstract here.


Examining the Social Cost and Benefit of Carbon Dioxide

Climate scientist Patrick Michaels provided testimony before the U.S. House of Representatives Committee on Science, Space and Technology on February 28, 2017 about the calculation of the Social Cost and Benefit of Carbon Dioxide (SCC). His testimony shows that the US Interagency Working Group (IWG) used too high and outdated estimates of climate sensitivity despite at least 16 new studies that show much lower values. Using more current values from empirical studies, the SCC in the DICE model falls by 30-50% and in the FUND model it falls by over 80%. The climate models over-warm the bulk atmosphere by a factor of 2.5. Climate models are tuned by adjusting parameters to roughly match the late 20th century warming from 1975, thereby misallocating natural warming to greenhouse gas warming. A 300 ppm increase in CO2 causes a 30% increase in the growth of most crops. Two of the models used by the IWG do not contain the any significant benefits of CO2 fertilization and the effect in the FUND model may be up to a factor of four too small. Sea level rise in the DICE model are far higher than mainstream projections. The SCC would likely be negative if the models used parameters from the current scientific literature. The IWG estimate of SCC is  “unsupported by the robust scientific literature”. See the written testimony here.


Aerosol-driven Increase in Arctic Sea Ice 1950 - 1975

A paper published by Gagné et al in February 2017 shows that the Arctic sea ice extent grew substantially between 1950 and 1975, contrary to earlier observational datasets that show weak inter-annual variations. The scientists used two new blended datasets mostly based on in-situ observation from the eastern Arctic. The sea ice increase is consistent with the observed Arctic cooling from 1940 to 1970. The authors used climate model simulations from the Canadian climate model CanEMS2 to suggest that the cooling was primarily due to increasing aerosols and with a smaller contribution from natural forcings. The new observational datasets indicate that Arctic sea ice concentration were as low in the early 1950s as during recent decades. See a discussion here and the paper here.


CliSci # 253      2017-02-23


Baffin Bay + Kane Basin Polar Bear Population Estimate Increased 42% from 1997

A new report of polar bear population shows a 42% increase in the estimated subpopulations of Baffin Bay plus Kane Basin, located between NW Greenland, and Baffin and Ellsemere Islands. Environment Canada assessed these area in 2014 as “data deficient” for Kane Basin and “likely declining” for Baffin Bay. A re-calculation of the 1995-97 data for Kane Basin increased the 1997 estimate from 164 to 224 polar bears, and the current estimate is 357. The Baffin Bay estimate increased from 2074 in 1997 to 2826 in 2013, however the report cautions that the estimates “are not directly comparable” due to data limitations. Dr. Susan J. Crockford writes that she expects “a revised 2015 global estimate of something like 23,000-33,000 depending on how all the results are interpreted.” The 1980 global estimate was about 22,000. See here.


China ENSO-related Cyclic Storms Are Driven by Solar Activity

A paper by Zhu et al 2017 shows that storms in central China are closely correlated with ENSO activity and “occur on a significant 500-y cycle related to periodic solar activity.” The authors used magnetic minerals preserved in a stalagmite to create a record of storm activity over the last 8,600 years. Strong storms correlate with low solar activity and weaker storms correlate with high solar activity. The paper finds that the cyclic storms are “controlled by the coupled atmosphere−oceanic circulation driven by solar activity.” See the abstract here.


Solar and Tropical Ocean Forcing of Climate Change in East Asia

A study by Park, 2017 compared a high-resolution sediment record from South Korea to total solar irradiance (TSI) and sea surface temperatures. The sediment record shows “important late Holocene cold events associated with low sunspot periods such as Oort, Wolf, Spörer, and Maunder Minimum.” The comparison between the temperature reconstruction and TSI suggests that solar activity drove Holocene variations in both East Asian Monsoons and ENSO. See the abstract here.


Homogenisation Increases Warming Trends in Australia and Colorado

Much of the warming reported by government temperature indexes are strongly affected by artificial warming known as the urban heat island (UHI) effect. Rural stations trends are often increased to match urban warming trends. In Australia, the warming trend from 1885 at lighthouses was measured at 0.43 °C/century, while the trend at cities are 0.82 °C/century. The lighthouse trends were increased through the homogenization process to be similar to the trend of the cities according to a study by Marohasy and Abbot. 

A study by Monte Naylor of the temperature record for Colorado shows that NOAA had adjusted rural station trends upward to match UHI contaminated temperature history of the Fort Collins station. The actual warming trend as estimated by Naylor is 0.82 °C/century. The NOAA homogenized trend is 1.93 °C/century, or 235% of Naylor’s estimate. See here.


Hurricane Activity Declining over Last 26 Decades – Linked to Solar Activity

A study published in Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics by Rojo-Garibaldi et al shows an analysis of hurricanes in the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean Sea, and sunspots occurring from 1749 to 2010. The authors compiled a database of hurricanes by combining the results of several studies. The abstract says “the total number of hurricanes is declining. This decline is related to an increase in sunspot activity. Spectral analysis shows a relationship between hurricane oscillation periods and sunspot activity.”  Hurricane activity was decreasing while sunspot numbers were increasing. It is quite likely that the number of hurricanes in the beginning portion of the record were under-reported when data acquisition was poorer than at the end of the record. If some hurricanes were missed at the beginning of the record, the decline would be greater. Climate alarmist including Al Gore have repeatedly claimed that warming will cause more hurricanes, but there is no evidence to support the claim. See a review of the paper and a graph of the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean Sea hurricane count here and the paper here. A graph of global hurricane frequency from 1970 is here.


Britain lost £450 Million by Paying Biomass Subsidies in 2015

The Times of the UK reported that “Britain is wasting hundreds of millions of pounds subsidising power stations to burn American wood pellets that do more harm to the climate than the coal they replaced, a study has found.” Britain imported 7.5 million tonnes of wood pellets last year, mostly from the US and Canada. The Drax power station received more than £450 million in subsidies in 2015 for burning the wood pellets. Biomass is considered carbon neutral by the EU because the trees that are cut down are replanted. A report by Duncan Brack says this process could take centuries. This is too late to prevent climate change over the coming decades. The report shows that facilities burning wood for energy, other than saw-mill residues or waste, will be increasing carbon dioxide emission for decades or centuries. Burning wood releases 18% more CO2 than burning bituminous coal. See here.


CliSci # 252      2017-02-11


Climate Scientists Versus Climate Data

Dr. John Bates retired November 2016 from his job as a principle scientist at NOAA’s National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI). He wrote NOAA’s procedure for quality checking, documenting and archiving climate data. Dr. Bates wrote a blog post that sharply criticized Tom Karl, director of NCIE, for not archiving or documenting a critical climate dataset that was introduced in a paper Karl et al 2015 (K15) published in the journal Science. The study had the effect of slightly reducing the sea surface temperature (SST) trend from 1980 to 1996, graph here, but increasing the SST trend from 1997 to 2014, graph here, where the trend during the hiatus period increased from 0.014 °C/decade to 0.065 °C/decade. The SST trend from 1980 to 2016 increased by only 0.006 °C/decade. Bates wrote “I was dumbstruck that Tom Karl, the NCEI Director in charge of NOAA’s climate data archive, would not follow the policy of his own Agency nor the guidelines in Science magazine for dataset archival and documentation.” The Karl data never went through any “operational readiness review” so Bates says “it is virtually impossible to replicate the result in K15.” Bates writes “we find Tom Karl’s thumb on the scale pushing for, and often insisting on, decisions that maximize warming and minimize documentation.” See here.

David Rose wrote an article in the UK Mail titled “Exposed: How world leaders were duped into investing billions over manipulated global warming data”. The K15 paper was dubbed the ‘Pausebuster’ paper and was very influential at the Paris climate conference. The paper adjusted floating buoy temperature data to better match data from ship engine room water intakes. The K15 paper also made smaller changes to the land temperature record. Bates say “the software used to process the figures was bug-ridden and unstable. The article says another version of the sea surface data, ERSSTv5, is being prepared that will fix errors in the ERSSTv4 based on K15 by changing the buoy adjustments and including some satellite data and Argo buoy network data. This will result in a reduction in the recent global warming trend. See here. Note, the graph comparing NOAA and Met Office temperature data in the Rose article is misleading as the temperature separation is due to the two indexes using different base periods.


One Thousand Years of Summer Temperatures in Northeastern Canada

CO2 Science reviewed at paper Naulier et al 2015 that presented a summer temperature reconstruction for eastern Canada based on oxygen isotopic series from tree rings. The oxygen isotope is considered a more reliable proxy than tree ring width. The temperature graph is here. The millennial record revealed a cooling trend to 1900, warming to 1950, 1970s cooling and warming to 2000. The warmest period was during the Medieval Warm Period at about year 1000, “and a cold period extending from the early 15th century through the end of the 19th century, representing the Little Ice Age”. There is nothing unusual, or unprecedented about the current level of warmth in northeastern Canada. The paper reports that their data suggest that "solar radiation was the most influential forcing on Tmax changes in the studied region," further noting that "low temperature periods were always associated to low solar radiation periods (p < 0.05)." See the review here.


U.S. Wind Energy Policy

The total cost of the US wind production tax credit subsidy for wind power in the years 2016-2020 is estimated at US$23.7 billion. Public opposition to wind turbines standing over 500 feet (150 m) near homes has significantly intensified. The Obama administration lost three court cases involving wind power for failing to comply with laws governing wildlife protection. The Department of Energy has issued reports that contradicted experts who have testified that wind turbines adversely affect health. Wind turbines adversely affects military radar, but the administration prohibited the Secretary of Defense from objecting to any wind energy project unless it produced an unacceptable risk to national security. The blog Master Resources reviews this and will make specific recommendation to the new Trump administration to fix these issues. See here.


Siberian Arctic Black Carbon Sources

Black carbon (BC) deposits on ice and snow are a major driver of climate warming in the Arctic, which is greatly underestimated in climate models. A study published in the Proceedings of the National academy of Sciences used a transport model and observations to find that the major sources of BC in the Russian Arctic are domestic heating sources (35%) and transportation (38%), with gas flaring (6%), power plants (9%) and open fires (12) being minor sources. Understanding the BC source attribution is required to develop reliable mitigation strategies to reduce BC impact in the Arctic. Black carbon, or soot, contributes to ice loss by increasing the absorption of sunlight. High-latitude sources are especially important. China releases more BC than Siberia, but reductions in China would have much less impact than reductions in the Arctic. See the abstract here and a news release here.


Solar Activity Drives Sea Levels, Tropical Storms and River Discharge

Dr. Lüning and Dr. Vahrenholt discuss three new papers related to solar forcing.  One paper “Decadal variability of European sea level extremes in relation to the solar activity” shows the autumn and/or winter sea level extremes vary with the 11 year solar cycle in Venice, Trieste, Marseille, Ceuta, Brest, and Newlyn. Another paper, “Solar forcing over the last 1500 years and Australian tropical cyclone activity” uses a 1500-year tropical cyclone activity index to show that “solar forcing largely drives decadal, interdecadal, and centennial cycles within the tropical cyclone record.” A third paper “Evidence of a decadal solar signal in the Amazon River: 1903 to 2013” compared a 1903-2013 record of the Amazon River discharge to solar activity. The paper reports the decadal flow cycle is anti-correlated with solar sunspot cycle. The authors write “This relationship persists through time and appears to result from a solar influence on the tropical Atlantic Ocean.” See here.


CliSci # 251      2017-01-29


Carbon Circular Logic

The BERN model is an “earth system model” used to convert estimates of carbon dioxide emissions to carbon dioxide accumulating in the atmosphere by estimated the absorption by carbon sinks. This model is used to generate CO2 concentration forecasts from the emission scenarios used in climate models. As a minimum, the BERN model should be able to reproduce past CO2 concentrations from CO2 emissions data, but it badly fails this test. Dr. Clive Best calculated the CO2 levels implied by the BERN model from the CO2 emissions from fossil fuel use, cement production and land use changes resulting in this graph. The BERN model gives goods agreement with the Dome C ice core data of CO2 levels up to 1940, then it give much higher CO2 levels than measured at Mauna Loa. A paper by Millar et al shows very similar results. Dr. Best explains that the discrepancy is likely due to the BERN model’s failure at account for the CO2 fertilization effect that is greening the earth and resulting in a growth plant CO2 sink. Dr. Best writes “This makes it clear that any fertilisation effect was also ignored by ESMs. This likely means that IPCC projections of future CO2 levels based on the Bern model are too high.” See his post here.

‘Warming’ and ‘The Pause’ Explained By Wind, Upwelling And Mixing

The amount of cool ocean water upwelling has a dramatic effect on sea surface temperatures. Wim Röst presents maps showing that during the warming ‘pause’ (2001-2015) ocean areas that cooled the most relative to the previous warming period (1986-2000) are those area that were windiest. Strong winds cause strong ocean upwelling, as well as more evaporation, both of which cause sea surface cooling. There was increased wind speed in the eastern Pacific during the ‘pause’ corresponding to cooler temperatures while the opposite occurred in the north Atlantic. Global wind speed were higher during the ‘pause’ than during the previous warming period. Wim Röst suggest that this is an overlooked negative feedback, where more warmth leads to more wind, more upwelling causing cooling that offsets some of the initial warming. See here.

Trump’s NOAA Administrator Must Address the Temperature Record Controversy

Dr. Spencer writes “NOAA has been actively ‘adjusting’ the thermometer record of global temperatures over the years by making the present warmer, and the past colder, leading to an ever increasing upward temperature trend.”   Numerous technical articles show that the temperature record is contaminated by the effects of urbanization and by inappropriate temperature adjustments.  A study resulting from the surface station project headed by Anthony Watts here shows that the NOAA adjusted USA temperature record trend from 1979 to 2008 is 59% greater than that determined by the stations compliant with NOAA’s standards.  Spencer says that President Trump must select a new NOAA administrator who “will reexamine these procedures. … The new NOAA Administrator needs to address this issue head on, and not whitewash it.” See here.

800 Years of Summer Temperatures in Scotland From Tree Rings

A study published is Climate Dynamics this month used living and fossilized pine tree rings to reconstruct 800 years of summer temperatures in Scotland. The abstract reports “ that the recent summer-time warming in Scotland is likely not unique when compared to multi-decadal warm periods observed in the 1300s, 1500s, and 1730s … Prominent cold periods were identified from the sixteenth century until the early 1800s—agreeing with the so-called Little Ice Age … extreme cold (and warm) years observed in NCAIRN appear more related to internal forcing of the summer North Atlantic Oscillation.”  See here.

Climatic Variability in Northern China over the Last 2200 Years

A paper by Li et al 2017 presented pollen-based temperature and precipitation reconstructions of northern China over the last 2200 years. The reconstruction shows “that solar activity may play a key role in driving the climatic fluctuations in NC [northern China] during the last 22 centuries, with its quasi ∼100, 50, 23, or 22-year periodicity”.  The reconstructions were compared to social-economic, and geo-political historical records. The authors find “that precipitation (67.4%) may have been more important than temperature (32.5%) in causing the overall agro-ecological and macro-geopolitical shifts in imperial China”. See here.

Petrified Tree Rings Show Solar Cycles 300 Million Years Ago

A paper published this month in the journal Geology used petrified tree ring from the Permian period in Germany to show an 11-year cyclic period. This is the earliest direct evidence of the 11-year solar cycle. The abstract says “… sunspot activity caused fluctuations of cosmic radiation input to the atmosphere, affecting cloud formation and annual rates of precipitation, which are reflected in the tree-ring archive.” This demonstrates the long-term stability of the solar cycle for at least the last 300 million years. See Science News here, the abstract here.


CliSci # 250      2017-01-16


The Atmospheric Temperature Pause

The December 2016 global temperature anomaly from the average of two analysis is 0.20 °C above the average of 1981 – 2010. The large El Niño event is over and we wait to see if it will be followed by a La Niña event. The satellite measured temperature of the lower troposphere to the end of 2016 from the average of the University of Alabama in Huntsville and Remote Sensing Systems analysis is here. The temperature trend from December 1997 to December 2016 is 0.045 ± 0.043 °C/decade at the 95% confidence interval. The slope could be as low as 0.002 °C/decade. According to the satellite data, 2016 was a statistically insignificant 0.02 °C warmer than 1998, which was another strong El Niño year.

Climate Models Overestimate the Aerosol Effect on Clouds

A paper published this month in Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics shows that climate models overestimate the effects of aerosols on cloud liquid volume. The authors simulated warm clouds at the  southern Great Plains (SGP) measurement site using a cloud resolving model (CRM) tuned to the measurements from the site, and compared the results to a single column version of a climate model (CAM).  The liquid water volume (or liquid water path, LWP) increase substantially with aerosol loading in the climate model while that in the cloud resolving model did not increase. The abstract says “The increase of LWP in CAM is caused by a large decrease of the autoconversion rate when cloud droplet number increases. In the CRM, the autoconversion rate is also reduced, but this is offset or even outweighed by the increased evaporation of cloud droplets near the cloud top, resulting in an overall decrease in LWP. Our results suggest that climate models need to include the dependence of cloud top growth and the evaporation/condensation process on cloud droplet number concentrations.” Climate modelers use aerosols as a huge fudge factor to match history. These results shows that aerosols no not affect cloud cover as much as previously assumed. This implies the decrease in global temperatures from 1940 to 1975 was not caused by human-caused aerosols but by natural causes. See the abstract here.

Greenland Ice Sheet Surface Mass Balance Is 120 Billion Tonnes Above the 1990-2013 Average

Danish Meteorological Institute publishes a real time chart of the Greenland ice sheet surface mass balance, which records the balance between ice gain from snowfall and ice loss from melting and sublimation.  See the chart here. The surface mass balance has increased due to an increase in snowfall, likely due to increased ocean evaporation resulting from lower sea ice extent in the Arctic. The total mass balance of the ice sheet would not change if the surface mass balance grows by the same amount as the calving from glaciers into the ocean as icebergs. Over the last decade, the calving from glaciers has exceeded the surface mass balance by about 200 Gt/yr, so the ice sheet was losing mass. That might change if the surface mass balance continues to grow at its current rate.

Coral Fossils Show Evidence of Immunity to Predicted Ocean Acidification and Warming

A paper published in Scientific Reports in January 2017 by Stolarski et al shows a comparison of skeletal structures of living Acropora corals with fossilized corals over many periods of the last 40 million years. Over this very long period of time the corals have experienced major changes in atmospheric CO2 concentrations and ocean temperatures. The oceans also had a dramatically changing Mg/Ca ratio. The analysis shows that the reef building corals were not harmed by the fluctuation CO2 levels, but has maintained its distinct skeletal bio-mineralization pattern for at least 40 million years. The authors write, “Such remarkable evolutionary stability … exists despite major global geochemical fluctuations”.  The skeletal formation process of corals is “strongly biologically controlled” and is uninhibited by changes in temperature or seawater pH –ocean acidification. See a review at CO2 Science here.

Satellite Reveals End of “Unending” N. California Drought

The New York Times reported in May 2016 the governor of California imposed permanent water conservation measures. The governor claimed that the drought may never end due to climate change. The idea that drought is caused by global warming is not supported by scientific evidence, as warming will cause slightly greater evaporation and precipitation rates. USA Today reported on January 12, 2017 that 20 inches (51 cm) of rain and 12 feet (3.66 m) of snow has ended the 5-year drought in northern California, see here.  Dr. Roy Spencer published satellite images of California that show the dramatic changes which have occurred since the same date three years ago. The images show the brown land in 2014 are now green and there is widespread snowpack, see here.

Climate and Solar Activity

There have been 132 peer-reviewed scientific papers published in 2016 that show a significant solar influence on climate and at least 7 paper published in this year show similar results.  A recent paper Zawiska et al 2017 presents a temperature reconstruction for the last millennium from lake sediments in Eastern Norway.  The results show that “summer temperatures were 1 to 2 °C  warmer than the mean millennial temperatures during the 11th, 13th, 15th and 20th centuries and 1 to 2 °C cooler during the 12th, 14th, 17-18 centuries.” The authors write “The three minor cooling periods were reconstructed in the first half of the millennium: 1050–1150, 1270–1370, 1440–1470 CE, that coincide with solar activity minima: Oort, Wolf, and Spörer respectively. Furthermore, a two peaked cooling period in the second half of the millennium was identified that coincided with the [Little Ice Age] LIA. These changes co-occurred with the prevailing negative [North Atlantic Oscillation] NAO index. … Maunder solar minimum caused a very deep negative NAO index phase during the LIA.” Climate warming began in 1800 following the Little Ice Age. “Temperatures increased very fast, from 8.5 to 12.8 °C during the first 75 years, but in the 20th century the increase became less pronounced.” The warming “correlates with the positive North Atlantic Oscillation index and increased solar activity.” The Zawiska paper is here. See a summary of this and other recent papers by Kenneth Richard here.

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